In Ghana, livestock and poultry production is a major source of livelihoods for the rural households in Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions. Ghana derives a lot of benefits from livestock production which include food, nutrition, income, alternative coping mechanisms in the event of crop failure and many more (MoFA, 2004; FAO, 2013). According to MoFA (2004), the livestock sector is considered to be an important sector in view of its contribution to food security and nutrition. As for its contribution to food security, crop farmers are also encouraged to engage in livestock production to avert food shortages in the event where the crops fail. Similarly, the contribution of livestock to food nutrition is the daily protein and calories that is needed for healthy growth of the population. FAO (2013) states that contributions from the livestock sector to the national economy was estimated to be in the region of GHS1159 million representing about 1.7 percent in 2012. The sector was also observed to have grown by 5.1 percent and declined slightly in growth to 5.0 percent in 2011 and 2012 respectively.

As in many other regions of the world, in Senegal the livestock and poultry sector continues to develop and become more industrialized under the pressure led by population growth and consequent urbanization affecting somewhat its traditional forms. Whatever the type of production system used (more or less extensive, agro-pastoral or agricultural), livestock farming has developed very close and systematized links with agriculture, driving the sector through animal husbandry and manure and becoming a food security factor capitalizing in the form of livestock (Kazybayeva, Otte, & Roland-Holst, 2006).


Senegal presents specific zones where different types of breeding are common. This zoning is mainly determined by the resources that these areas can provide in terms of crops, climate, soils, water availability, location and population. In the north east where the competition with agriculture is very low, extensive breeding is the main production system while in other areas since the 1980s there have been attempts to manage the different zones in order to avoid land-use conflicts.

Thanks to its adaptability especially in rural areas where the ratio of population owning animals and actively involved in the value-chain is higher, the sector generates work for around 3.5 million people, represents 35% of the GDP of the primary sector, and 7% of the national GDP. The sector weighs globally, around 916 million euros and could bring more to the national economy and play a more relevant role in food security, if it were better structured and account for the structural changes (Ouedraogo, Diouf, Ouédraogo, Ndiaye, & Zougmoré, 2018).

Despite its size, the sector’s coverage of national demand for dairy products remains insufficient, and two-thirds of the dairy products consumed come from imports (Faye). But the national or regional herd still provides most of the meat consumption (Zamani, Pelikan, & Schott, 2021).


Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, accounting for 30 per cent of the GDP and 74 per cent of employment.  It is a key sector in the economic pillar of the Kenya Vision 2030 whose functions have been devolved by the Constitution of Kenya, 2010. Land is the main asset in agricultural production but only an estimated 16 percent is of high and medium agricultural potential. The remaining 84 percent of the country is arid and semi- arid and not suitable for rain-fed agriculture due to low and erratic rainfall. Livestock remain the primary source of livelihood for communities living in the Arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). Small-scale production accounts for 75 percent of the total agricultural output and 70 percent of the marketed agricultural produce in the country. The livestock sub-sector is a vital component of the agriculture sector in Kenya that is estimated to contribute 12 percent of Kenya’s GDP; 40 percent to the agricultural GDP while employing 50 percent of agricultural labour force.  The livestock sub-sectors include dairy, beef, poultry, camel, bees and emerging livestock.

Kenyan consumers are getting wealthier with the current GDP per-capita projected to be over five times its current level by year 2050. This growing, increasingly wealthy and urbanized population will consume more high value food products particularly from animal sources such as chicken meat and eggs. This is an opportunity for livestock keepers and represents a ready market as well as a vehicle out of poverty for the low and middle-income population. Chicken plays a major role representing 4 percent of agricultural contribution to GDP. Local chicken constitute 78 percent of all poultry in Kenya with a population of over 30 million birds and average flock sizes of less than 30 birds per household. Despite a lack of measurable indicators, local chicken are recognized as an important economic tool for poverty alleviation and households’ food and nutrition security at national and locally by County governments.

The estimated poultry population in Kenya is 38.8 million birds of which LC are 78 percent, broilers 7.5 percent and layers 14 percent. Other types of poultry reared in smaller numbers but gaining importance include ducks, quails, turkeys, ostriches, and guinea fowls making up less than one percent of the total poultry population.  National poultry meat production is estimated at 18,600 metric tonnes (Mts) valued at KSh 3.52 billion.  LC meat production is estimated 11,400 Mts (61 percent) while broilers and culls from hybrid layers produce about 6,300 Mts (34 percent) and 900 Mts (5 percent) respectively. Egg production is estimated at 1.3 billion, valued at KSh 9.70 billion with LC producing about 570 million (47 percent) while exotic layer production is 650 million eggs (53 percent).  This confirms that despite their numbers, LC productivity and profitability is low.  There is need for chicken keeping households as well as private commercial enterprises, to expand their assets and adopt productivity-enhancing practices to bridge the deficit in supply. Challenges contributing to low productivity include limited agricultural services, low uptake of technologies, information and management practices (TIMPs), inadequate access to markets and market information and lack of value addition among others.

The devolution process brought new opportunities as well as challenges to increasing agricultural productivity, employment, and food security, as well as for enhancing efforts to reduce poverty and improve governance. Counties now play the primary role of delivering agricultural services previously managed by the national government, which retained a policy-making and research roles. Some counties have delivered their mandated services, while others are still lagging behind. There is need to support counties in developing development strategies, identify key investment opportunities that will catalyze critical processes/mechanisms, while identifying human resource requirements for overall improved productivity and profitability along the chicken value chain.